h.r. (bart) everett

      

 Sensors for Mobile Robots: Theory and Application
sensors for mobile robots
Sensors for Mobile Robots: Theory and Application has received critical acclaim by academic, military, and industrial peers. Below is information on book reviews, Foreword by Professor Rod Brooks, Table of Contents, etc.

      

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 Sensors for Mobile Robots: Theory and Application - Reviews


Simply The Best Technical Book I have Ever Read., September 1, 1999
Reviewer: A reader from Winthrop, MA, USA
I read a lot of text books, papers and other references on Robots. I am always very carefull to research before I buy, and most books I get are at least interesting if not actually usefull. Sensors for Mobile Robots is both. It covers almost every type of sensor imaginable, and it does it very well. It includes both the Theory, Example and a vast wealth of helpful hints. In its limited size it would have been impossible to do more. This book should be in everyone's library that deals with robots, or even sensors in the real world.
Robert Posey


One-of-a-kind text in mobile robotics, April 15, 2003
Reviewer: Ericson Mar from Woodside, NY United States
The author is one of the most renown in the field and reading this book you can see why in this one-of-a-kind book. This work documents many systems and techniques used in mobile robotics. It gives enough detail to provide a technical picture (without delving unnecessarily deep) for the sake of covering the broad range of topics. Although a bit dated as of this review I still would highly recommend this for educational and reference purposes in addition to leisure reading. Much of the technologies and techniques covered are still used in today's world and definitely will likely be applied, in many ways, to future technologies (robotic or otherwise). For persons with some science and engineering background, this is an excellent book that can help you take a step into the world of robotics.

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 Sensors for Mobile Robots: Theory and Application - Foreword

A robot?s ability to sense its world and change its behavior on that basis is what makes a robot an interesting thing to build and a useful artifact when completed. Without sensors, robots would be nothing more than fixed automation, going through the same repetitive task again and again in a carefully controlled environment. Such devices certainly have their place and are often the right economic solution. But with good sensors, robots have the potential to do so much more. They can operate in unstructured environments and adapt as the environment changes around them. They can work in dirty dangerous places where there are no humans to keep the world safe for them. They can interact with us and with each other to work as parts of teams. They can inspire our imaginations and lead us to build devices that not so long ago were purely in the realms of fiction. Sensors are what makes it all possible.

When it comes right down to it there are two sorts of sensors. There are visual sensors, or eyes, and there are non-visual sensors. Lots of books have been written about visual sensors and computer vision for robots.

There is exactly one book devoted to non-visual sensors. This one. We tend to be a little vision-centric in our ?view?? (there we go again...) of the world, as for humans vision is the most vivid sensor mechanism. But when we look at other animals, and without the impediment of introspection, another picture (hmmm...) begins to emerge. Insects have two eyes, each with at most perhaps 10,000 sensor elements.

Arachnids have eight eyes, many of them vestigial, some with only a few hundred sensor elements, and at most 10,000 again. But insects have lots and lots and lots of other sensors. Cockroaches, for example, have 30,000 wind-sensitive hairs on their legs, and can sense a change in wind direction and alter the direction in which they are scuttling in only 10 milliseconds. That is why you cannot stomp on one unless you have it cornered, and on top of that get lucky. The cockroach can sense your foot coming and change course much faster than you can change where you are aiming. And those 30,000 sensitive hairs represent just one of a myriad of specialized sensors on a cockroach. Plus each different insect has many varied and often uniquely different sensors. Evolution has become a master at producing non-visual sensors.

As robotics engineers we find it hard to create new sensors, but are all aware that in general our robots have a rather impoverished connection to the world. More sensors would let us program our robots in ways that handled more situations, and do better in those situations than they would with fewer sensors. Since we cannot easily create new sensors, the next best thing would be to know what sensors were already available. Up until this point we have all maintained our own little libraries of sensors in our heads. Now Bart Everett has written down all he had in his own private library and more. Bart?s robots have always stood out as those with the most sensors, because interactive sensing has always been a priority for Bart. Now he is sharing his accumulated wisdom with us, and robotdom will be a better place for it. Besides providing us with an expanded library, Bart has also done it in a way that everyone interested in robotics can understand. He takes us through the elementary physics of each sensor with an approach that a computer scientist, an electrical engineer, a mechanical engineer, or an industrial engineer can relate to and appreciate. We gain a solid understanding of just what each sensor is measuring, and what its limitations will be.

So let?s go build some new robots!

Rodney A. Brooks, MIT AI Laboratory, Cambridge, MA

 Sensors for Mobile Robots: Theory and Application - Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
1.2 THE ROBOTS
1.2.1 WALTER (1965-1967)
1.2.2 CRAWLER I (1966-1968)
1.2.3 CRAWLER II (1968-1971)
1.2.4 ROBART I (1980-1985)
1.2.5 ROBART II (1982-)
1.2.6 MODBOT (1990-)
1.2.7 USMC TeleOperated Vehicle (1985-1989)
1.2.8 MDARS Interior (1989-)
1.2.9 Surrogate Teleoperated Vehicle (1990-1993)
1.2.10 ROBART III (1992-)
1.2.11 MDARS Exterior (1994-)
2. DEAD RECKONING
2.1 ODOMETRY SENSORS
2.1.1 Potentiometers
2.1.2 Synchros and Resolvers
2.1.3 Optical Encoders
2.2 DOPPLER AND INERTIAL NAVIGATION
2.2.1 Doppler Navigation
2.2.2 Inertial Navigation
2.3 TYPICAL MOBILITY CONFIGURATIONS
2.3.1 Differential Steering
2.3.2 Ackerman Steering
2.3.3 Synchro Drive
2.3.4 Tricycle Drive
2.3.5 Omni-Directional Drive
2.4 INTERNAL POSITION ERROR CORRECTION
3. TACTILE AND PROXIMITY SENSING
3.1 TACTILE SENSORS
3.1.1 Tactile Feelers
3.1.2 Tactile Bumpers
3.1.3 Distributed Surface Arrays
3.2 PROXIMITY SENSORS
3.2.1 Magnetic Proximity Sensors
3.2.2 Inductive Proximity Sensors
3.2.3 Capacitive Proximity Sensors
3.2.4 Ultrasonic Proximity Sensors
3.2.5 Microwave Proximity Sensors
3.2.6 Optical Proximity Sensors
4. TRIANGULATION RANGING
4.1 STEREO DISPARITY
4.1.1 JPL Stereo Vision
4.1.2 David Sarnoff Stereo Vision
4.2 ACTIVE TRIANGULATION
4.2.1 Hamamatsu Rangefinder Chip Set
4.2.2 Draper Laboratory Rangefinder
4.2.3 Quantic Ranging System
4.3 ACTIVE STEREOSCOPIC
4.3.1 HERMIES
4.3.2 Dual-Aperture 3-D Range Sensor
4.4 STRUCTURED LIGHT
4.4.1 TRC Strobed-Light Triangulation System
4.5 KNOWN TARGET SIZE
4.5.1 NAMCO Lasernet? Scanning Laser Sensor
4.6 OPTICAL FLOW
4.6.1 NIST Passive Ranging and Collision Avoidance
4.6.2 David Sarnoff Passive Vision
5. TIME OF FLIGHT
5.1 ULTRASONIC TOF SYSTEMS
5.1.1 National Semiconductor?s LM1812 Ultrasonic Transceiver
5.1.2 Massa Products Ultrasonic Ranging Module Subsystems
5.1.3 Polaroid Ultrasonic Ranging Modules
5.1.4 Cybermotion CA-2 Collision Avoidance System
5.2 LASER-BASED TOF SYSTEMS
5.2.1 Schwartz Electro-Optics Laser Rangefinders
5.2.2 RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems
5.2.3 Odetics Fast Frame Rate 3-D Laser Imaging System
5.2.4 RVSI Long Optical Ranging and Detection System
6. PHASE-SHIFT MEASUREMENT AND FREQUENCY MODULATION
6.1 PHASE-SHIFT MEASUREMENT
6.1.1 ERIM 3-D Vision Systems
6.1.2 Perceptron LASAR
6.1.3 Odetics Scanning Laser Imaging System
6.1.4 Sandia Scannerless Range Imager
6.1.5 ESP Optical Ranging System
6.1.6 Acuity Research AccuRange 3000
6.1.7 TRC Light Direction and Ranging System
6.2 FREQUENCY MODULATION
6.2.1 VRSS Automotive Collision Avoidance Radar
6.2.2 VORAD Vehicle Detection and Driver Alert System
6.2.3 Safety First Systems Vehicular Obstacle Detection and Warning System
6.2.4 Millitech Millimeter Wave Radar
7. OTHER RANGING TECHNIQUES
7.1 INTERFEROMETRY
7.1.1 CLS Coordinate Measuring System
7.2 RANGE FROM FOCUS
7.2.1 Honeywell Autofocus Systems
7.2.2 Associates and Ferren Swept-Focus Ranging
7.2.3 JPL Range-from-Focus System
7.3 RETURN SIGNAL INTENSITY
7.3.1 Programmable Near-Infrared Proximity Sensor
7.3.2 Australian National University Rangefinder
7.3.3 MIT Near-Infrared Ranging System
7.3.4 Honeywell Displaced-Sensor Ranging Unit
8. ACOUSTICAL ENERGY
8.1 APPLICATIONS
8.2 PERFORMANCE FACTORS
8.2.1 Atmospheric Attenuation
8.2.2 Target Reflectivity
8.2.3 Air Turbulence
8.2.4 Temperature
8.2.5 Beam Geometry
8.2.6 Noise
8.2.7 System-Specific Anomalies
8.3 CHOOSING AN OPERATING FREQUENCY
8.4 SENSOR SELECTION CASE STUDY
9. ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY
9.1 OPTICAL ENERGY
9.1.1 Electro-Optical Sources
9.1.2 Performance Factors
9.1.3 Choosing an Operating Wavelength
9.2 MICROWAVE RADAR
9.2.1 Applications
9.2.2 Performance Factors
9.3 MILLIMETER-WAVE RADAR
9.3.1 Applications
9.3.2 Performance Factors
9.3.3 Choosing an Operating Frequency
10. COLLISION AVOIDANCE
10.1 NAVIGATIONAL CONTROL STRATEGIES
10.1.1 Reactive Control
10.1.2 Representational World Modeling
10.1.3 Combined Approach
10.2 EXTERIOR APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS
10.3 NAVIGATIONAL RE-REFERENCING
11. GUIDEPATH FOLLOWING
11.1 WIRE GUIDED
11.2 OPTICAL STRIPE
11.2.1 ModBot Optical Stripe Tracker
11.2.2 U/V Stimulated Emission
11.3 MAGNETIC TAPE
11.3.1 Macome Magnetic Stripe Follower
11.3.2 Apogee Magnetic Stripe Follower
11.3.3 3M/Honeywell Magnetic Lateral Guidance System
11.4 HEAT AND ODOR SENSING
11.5 INTERMITTENT-PATH NAVIGATION
11.5.1 MDARS Interior Hybrid Navigation
11.5.2 Free Ranging On Grid
12. MAGNETIC COMPASSES
12.1 MECHANICAL MAGNETIC COMPASSES
12.1.1 Dinsmore Starguide Magnetic Compass
12.2 FLUXGATE COMPASSES
12.2.1 Zemco Fluxgate Compasses
12.2.2 Watson Gyro Compass
12.2.3 KVH Fluxgate Compasses
12.2.4 Applied Physics Systems Miniature Orientation Sensor
12.3 MAGNETOINDUCTIVE MAGNETOMETERS
12.3.1 Precision Navigation TCM Magnetoinductive Compass
12.4 HALL-EFFECT COMPASSES
12.5 MAGNETORESISTIVE COMPASSES
12.5.1 Philips AMR Compass
12.5.2 Space Electronics AMR Compass
12.5.3 Honeywell HMR Series Smart Digital Magnetometer
12.6 MAGNETOELASTIC COMPASSES
13. GYROSCOPES
13.1 MECHANICAL GYROSCOPES
13.1.1 Space-Stable Gyroscopes
13.1.2 Gyrocompasses
13.1.3 Rate Gyros
13.2 OPTICAL GYROSCOPES
13.2.1 Active Ring-Laser Gyros
13.2.2 Passive Ring Resonator Gyros
13.2.3 Open-Loop Interferometric Fiber-Optic Gyros
13.2.4 Closed-Loop Interferometric Fiber-Optic Gyros
13.2.5 Resonant Fiber-Optic Gyros
14. RF POSITION-LOCATION SYSTEMS
14.1 GROUND-BASED RF SYSTEMS
14.1.1 Loran
14.1.2 Kaman Sciences Radio Frequency Navigation Grid
14.1.3 Precision Technology Tracking and Telemetry System
14.1.4 Motorola Mini-Ranger Falcon
14.1.5 Harris Infogeometric System
14.2 SATELLITE-BASED SYSTEMS
14.2.1 Transit Satellite Navigation System
14.2.2 Navstar Global Positioning System
15. ULTRASONIC AND OPTICAL POSITION-LOCATION SYSTEMS
15.1 ULTRASONIC POSITION-LOCATION SYSTEMS
15.1.1 Ultrasonic Transponder Trilateration
15.1.2 Ultrasonic Signature Matching
15.2 OPTICAL POSITION-LOCATION SYSTEMS
15.2.1 CRAWLER I Homing Beacon
15.2.2 ROBART II Recharging Beacon
15.2.3 Cybermotion Docking Beacon
15.2.4 Hilare
15.2.5 NAMCO Lasernet? Scanning Laser Sensor
15.2.6 Caterpillar Self-Guided Vehicle
15.2.7 TRC Beacon Navigation System
15.2.8 Intelligent Solutions EZNav Position Sensor
15.2.9 Imperial College Beacon Navigation System
15.2.10 MTI Research CONAC
15.2.11 MDARS Lateral-Post Sensor
16. WALL, DOORWAY, AND CEILING REFERENCING
16.1 WALL REFERENCING
16.1.1 Tactile Wall Referencing
16.1.2 Non-Contact Wall Referencing
16.1.3 Wall Following
16.2 DOORWAY TRANSIT REFERENCING
16.3 CEILING REFERENCING
16.3.1 Polarized Optical Heading Reference
16.3.2 Georgia Tech Ceiling Referencing System
16.3.3 TRC HelpMate Ceiling Referencing System
16.3.4 MDARS Overhead-Beam Referencing System
17. APPLICATION-SPECIFIC MISSION SENSORS
17.1 THE SECURITY APPLICATION
17.1.1 Acoustical Detection
17.1.2 Vibration Sensors
17.1.3 Ultrasonic Presence Sensors
17.1.4 Optical Motion Detection
17.1.5 Passive Infrared Motion Detection
17.1.6 Microwave Motion Detection
17.1.7 Video Motion Detection
17.1.8 Intrusion Detection on the Move
17.1.9 Verification and Assessment
17.2 AUTOMATED INVENTORY ASSESSMENT
17.2.1 MDARS Product Assessment System

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Technical Director for Robotics, 23705 | SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego
Bldg. 622 Seaside | 53406 Woodward Road | San Diego CA 92152-7383

everett@spawar.navy.mil